This is a very common idea in Eastern philosophy, brilliant summarized by Alan Watts as the Universe (or Godhead as he likes to call it) playing hide and seek with itself.
In this he refers to the philosophical idea of the Logos (in Stoic philosophy, I don't know the equivalent in Eastern philosophy unfortunately), which is that of a logical and active existence that exists within the fabric of everything - but it does not necessarily mean 'God'.
As I understand it, Watts pulls his believes more from the Eastern philosophies, but they share much in common with the Stoics.
In Watts words he describes the energy of the Universe (Logos/God/Godhead) as a big game of hide and seek, where every being in the Universe is simply an extension of this 'Godhead'.
These extensions of the Godhead have all forgotten that they are in fact the same Godhead and many actively search for the Godhead without understanding what it is nor that they are it - hence the hide and seek metaphor.
It's a good book, I'm sure you would enjoy it - I would also recommend Luc Ferry's 'A Brief History of Thought' as an introduction to philosophy in general, it's all very interesting and truly the best resource in personal development in my opinion.